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How SMPS Works

Lily   December 23, 2014   Comments Off on How SMPS Works

power-supplyPower supply unit is an electrical device that provides power to electronic devices and circuits. Most of the electronic devices require less power voltage as compared to the voltage supplied to home or office. This led to the development of Switching Mode Power Supply (SMPS) technology. This device is responsible for the power conversion from high voltage to low voltage. The Power supply unit supplies power to different system components such as the motherboard and the device drives. You must protect the system from extreme temperature changes like overheating using cooling devices. You can use a voltage stabilizer to protect the system from power fluctuations. You can protect the system from failure due to power cuts by installing an UPS.

Switch Mode Power Supply:

The SMPS unit is mostly found in the top corner of the system case. It accepts the Alternating Current (AC) from the power socket in the wall. It then converts the AC to DC for the system. The power supplies are available in the range of 250W to 400W. The current supplied by power supply unit to the different components of the system are 3.3V, 5V and 12 V. The microprocessors and   chipsets in the system use 3.3V and 5V of the electric current, while the disk drives such as hard disk drives and other removable disk drives use 12V of electric current.

Functions of SMPS:

The Power supply junction supplies AC current to the power supply unit (SMPS). However, the various components of the system require DC. The SMPS unit converts AC to DC for its use. This power is then distributed among the different parts of the computer. The power supply unit of the system generates high-frequency signals during the electric current conversion from AC to DC. This frequency may harm the components of the system. To prevent damage to the system the SMPS unit is packed in a metal box.

Colour specifications of an ATX Power connector:

Pin Signal Colour 1 Colour 2 Pin Signal Colour 1 Colour 2
1 3.3 V Orange Violet 11 3.3 V Orange Violet
2 3.3 V Orange Violet 12 -12 V Blue Blue
3 GND Black Black 13 GND Black Black
4 5 V Red Red 14 PS_ON Green Grey
5 GND Black Black 15 GND Black Black
6 5 V Red Red 16 GND Black Black
7 GND Black Black 17 GND Black Black
8 PW_OK Grey Orange 18 -5 V White White
9 5V_SB Violet Brown 19 5 V Red Red
10 12 V Yellow Yellow 20 5 V Red Red

 

Factors to be considered before selecting a SMPS:

Before selecting an SMPS, you need to consider certain factors such as size, wattage and different connectors.

Size: SMPS is available in various sizes. Before selecting a power supply, you need to select power supply of appropriate size which fits in your system case.

Connectors: Check for the available number of power supply connectors that can provide supply to all the devices. Also check if the power supply connector can be attached to power supply slot.

Wattage:

Servers and desktop computers work in power rating. Power rating is measured in terms of Watts. Rating for SMPS varies between 250W-400W. Maximum power consumption occurs at start up time of SMPS. Computers have rating between 250W-300W and servers have rating between 300W – 400W. It is always better to have excess wattage on a power supply.

To calculate Wattage requirements manually, consider the below table:

PC Item Watts
Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) card 20 to 30 W
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) card 5W
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) PCI card 20 to 25 W
Floppy Disk Drive 5W
Network Interface Card 4W
50X CD ROM drive 10 to 25 W
RAM 10W per 128 MB
1000 RPM Hard disk 15 to 20 W
Motherboard without CPU or RAM 20 to 30 W
Dual core processor 1.7 GHZ 50 W

 

Testing an SMPS:

  1. Check the AC line for functionality.
  2. Check the power cord and Line voltage selector switch if it has been set to 230 VAC.
  3. Remove all daughter cards, FDD, HDD and supply connector and check the PG signal(+5VDC grey)
  4. Short pin no.13 and 14 to see that fan is rotating and then check the output voltage by DMM.
  5. If the SMPS does not work when connected to motherboard then check whether there is a problem with SMPS.
  6. SMPS may make hissing sound because of loose transformer vibrating at a sub harmonic frequency or dried up electrolytic capacitors. To troubleshoot this problem.
  1. Ensure that there is no short circuit or loose connection.
  2. Ensure that the power supply is not overloaded.

 

Selecting & Installing a UPS

Lily   December 14, 2014   Comments Off on Selecting & Installing a UPS

UPSAn UPS is a device which maintains continuous supply of electric power to the connected equipment by supplying power from a battery when main power is not available. UPS supplies current to the system for a particular period of time depending on the capacity of the device. In the event of power failure, using the backup power supply, the system can safely shutdown. This ensures that the files on the system or the system components such as hard disk do not get corrupted due to improper shutdown. A computer can accept a slight difference in the voltage frequency. However, a major difference in the voltage frequency can damage the components of the system. A Backup Power System also known as the UPS is used for protecting the system from these surges. The Battery of the UPS gets charged when the system is powered ON using the main power supply. This stored battery current is used during a power failure.

Types of UPS:

Depending on the features of the Ups they are classified in following types:

Stand by UPS: The stand by UPS remains in standby mode until the battery current is required whether there are power fluctuations or a power failure. When the power returns to normal the UPS stops supplying the electric current to the system.

Line interactive UPS: The Line-interactive UPS keeps a track on the power supply voltage from the power supply junction to the system. If the voltage falls very low than the Ups supplies the power to the system. This is used for the small-scale servers such as web servers, small business or departmental servers.

Online UPS: The Online UPS supplies power to the system from the UPS battery at all the times even when the power supply voltage is at normal levels. The battery gets charged continuously as long as it gets power from the power supply junction. When there is a power failure, the UPS continues to supply power to the system till there is power in the battery.

Selecting a UPS:

Power problems can affect the systems by causing you to loose stored data or damage the system components. To protect the system from sudden power problems, you should use a UPS to overcome these problems. The factors considered before selecting a UPS are load, installation location, cooling batteries and efficiency.

  1. Load: It is necessary to check the size and the type of the system that needs to be protected by the UPS. Accordingly, the power rating of the UPS can be determined for the system. The maximum power rating of a standby UPS starts from 500 VA to 1.5KVA.
  2. Installation location: An UPS system has a noise level between 50-60dba and releases heat while working. As a result, it needs to be placed separately and away from the work area. This factor is considered in case of an office work area.
  3. Cooling: When a system uses UPS for the backup power, the cooling facility such as an air cooler should be provided for the system as well as for the UPS.
  4. Batteries: The Batteries of UPS are placed in a separate cabinet along with the UPS or may be placed inside the UPS. If the battery of the UPS gets damaged, you must replace the batteries immediately with a replaceable battery pack.
  5. Efficiency: The efficiency of the UPS system will calculate the operating costs of the UPS. If the UPS works efficiently, operating cost of the UPS will be less.

Features of UPS:

  1. Form factor: A form factor refers to the general shape and size of the UPS. The UPS is available in standalone model and rack-mount model. Stand-alone models of UPS are placed on floor outside the system. The rack-mount models of the UPS are placed on the metal racks, thus saving the floor space. These models of UPS are used when a system is placed on a rack and the UPS is placed just below the system. These are used in industrial and commercial applications.
  2. Capacity and runtime: The run time of a UPS is the amount of time the battery of the UPS provides electric current to the system in case of power failure. The capacity of Ups means the capacity of the battery to supply electric current to the system for the maximum amount of time. It also means that the ability of the circuits and wires of UPS to bear the load of the electric current. The model name of the UPS displays the capacity of UPS. For e.g. An UPS of 650VA has the capacity of 650.
  3. Self-test: The Self-test feature of UPS ensures that the UPS is functioning properly and the system is well protected. The UPS tests itself when it is turned ON and then does it periodically during the week. During the self-test period of the UPS, it emits some tone with a flash of light on the indicator. The self-test feature of the UPS can be controlled with the help of UPS control software.

 

How the Hard Drive Works

Lily   December 14, 2014   Comments Off on How the Hard Drive Works

HDDA Hard disk is a secondary and permanent data storage device that is placed in the system. It is made up of a magnetic material that helps in storing data by following the magnetic recording techniques. A Hard disk stores data from 1 GB to Terabytes depending on the capacity of the hard disk. A Hard disk consists of several circular platters. Each platter has read/write heads on both the sides. The platters are divided into concentric circles called as tracks and each track is divided into smaller units called sectors. The read/write head examines and records data in these sectors. The identically aligned tracks on each side of every platter together make up cylinder.

Types of Hard disk:

Hard disks can be classified into types depending on the speed at which the hard disk transfers data and the reliability of the hard disk in storing data if the hard disk crashes. The different types of hard disk are:

  1. Serial ATA (SATA)
  2. SCSI Hard Disk Drive
  3. External Hard Disk Drives (USB 2.0/Firewall)
  4. Wireless Hard Disk Drive

Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA)

Serial ATA transfers data using 1 bit with the speed of up to 600MB per second but external SATA is capable of 1.5Gbps. SATA hard disk uses a smaller 7 –wire cable to connect to the system. This cable can have a maximum length of meter. The power cable of SATA Hard disk is smaller than the ‘Molex’ connectors used in ATA hard disks. We can only connect one SATA hard disk to a SATA controller on the motherboard. This eliminates the need to set a Hard disk as Master or slave. We can connect more than one hard disk by connecting them to different SATA controllers on the motherboard using separate cables.

Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI)

SCSI hard disk is used in network server which includes lot of processing. SCSI is a high speed interface that enables you to connect up to 15 devices on a single port. SCSI is used with the Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk (RAID), where two or more hard disks are combined together to form a single hard disk. RAID allows to access data quickly and prevents loss of data in case of a hard disk crash.

External Hard Disk Drives (USB, Fire wire)

External hard disk can be connected using USB2 and fire wire interfaces. External HDD also supports high-speed data transfer. External Hard Disks that uses this interfaces consumes the required power from the port through which they are connected like USB or Fire wire.

Wireless HDD

Wireless Hard Disk Drives are small and light in weight. They use 802.11g standard for communication. Wireless HDD requires external power supply. It is a Wi-Fi hard disk.

Characteristics of Hard Disk Drive:

Before selecting a HDD several factors are taken into consideration such as capacity, cost, performance, reliability, RPM of the HDD. The different types of HDD are:

  1. Cost & Capacity: At first the HDD capacity was very less and too costly. With the advancement in technology the cost of the HDD gradually decreased and the capacity of the HDD also increased. Now HDD are available from 500 GB to 1 TB.
  2. Performance: Mainly computer use involves loading and saving data frequently. All these operations require access to hard disk. The performance of HDD depends on the way data is stored and retrieved on the HDD.
  3. Reliability: Hard disk is the most commonly used data storage device. Reliability is measured in terms that the user should be able to retrieve and store the data when required.
  4. RPM: Revolutions Per Minute is the count of the revolutions made by the Hard disk per minute. Faster RPM results in quick access time which in turn results in faster read and writes. IDE HDDs are available in 5400 and 7200 rpm and SCSI are available in 10K and 15K rpm.

Troubleshooting

You must troubleshoot the Hard disk when the system does not start, the system displays errors while booting, or the hard disk does not display the correct storage capacity. You must also check that there is no power leakage from the power supply case as this can damage the HDD.

  1. System does not start:
  2. The system will not boot if it cannot load the system files from the HDD. This may be caused due to improper jumper or BIOS settings or some problems with the cable connectors.
  1. Check if the power supply is switched ON.
  2. Remove any floppy disk inserted in the Floppy Disk Drive.
  3. Check if the BIOS is set to boot from the HDD.
  4. Check that the cables connecting the hard disk to the motherboard are connected properly.
  5. Set the proper jumper settings if multiple HDDs are present.
  6. Connect the HDD using a different interface cable that you know is working.
  7. Install the HDD on a different system to check if it is working.
  8. Boot the system using the bootable floppy disk or CD and try accessing the hard disk and scan the disk for errors.
  9. Format and reinstall the operating system on the HDD.
  1. HDD contains Bad sectors: There are several ways in which a Hard disk can develop bad sectors:
  1. A hole in the magnetic thin film on the platter when it was coated.
  2. A defect in the substrate which gets worse with the time.
  3. A mechanical failure which causes the head to contact the platter.
  4. Thermal fluctuations which corrupt magnetic data.
  5. Power loss during a write operation.
  6. Viruses and Trojans causing minor logical damage to the HDD.

Fixing Bad sectors:

  1. Bad sectors can be repaired using the Disk Diagnostics Utility. Go to ‘Start’ — ‘Computer’. Right click on the ‘Local Disk C’ and click ‘Properties’. The ‘Properties dialog box appears.
  2. Click the ‘Tools’ tab and click on ‘Check Now’ button. The ‘Check disk’ dialog box appears.
  3. Select the ‘Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors’ option.
  4. Click the start button.
  5. It may ask you to reboot the computer to perform the fixing of bad sectors. Restart the computer to do so.

Hard disk drive crashes:

  1. Remove the HDD from the system.
  2. Install HDD in another system as secondary drive.
  3. If HDD is working, try to copy the data into another storage device (HDD) available.
  4. Format the HDD.

Hard disk does not display the correct formatted size:

  1. Scan the system for viruses.
  2. Use scan disk to check the system for errors.
  3. Check the settings from BIOS.
  4. Check the jumper settings to see if any size restrictions are set for the HDD.
  5. Back up the HDD and reformat the drive.

How to Troubleshoot Problems with your Laptop

Lily   October 20, 2014   Comments Off on How to Troubleshoot Problems with your Laptop

Laptop Troubleshootinglaptops

You may encounter many problems on your laptop, the cause of which can be software or hardware. Troubleshooting steps must be systematically followed to detect the cause of the problem and repair it. There’s very little difference between troubleshooting different laptops, as the basic design of all of the laptops is same, even if one model uses an Intel CPU, another an AMD, a third a PowerPC and a fourth a low power Transmeta.

Laptop does not start after being turned ON:

This problem mainly occurs due to improper supply of power. It can also be a result of overheating. In order to solve the problem you may perform the below steps:

  1. If you are using a battery, inspect it to verify whether it needs recharging. If it does, recharge the battery after fully discharging it first.
  2. Check the connection of the power cable to the socket. The connection must be tight.
  3. Laptop consists of external power indicator which can be checked in case there are power related problems.
  4. Check the AC adapter. If the light on the AC adapter is not ON, it is not working properly and must be replaced.
  5. If the power indicator shows a blinking orange light, the laptop has probably shutdown because of overheating.
  6. Check the output vent of the laptop to see if the Fan is working.
  7. See if there is dust covering the output vent.
  8. Clean the dust carefully with a soft dry cloth.
  9. Allow the laptop to cool down and then restart it.

CTRL + ALT + DEL does not work:

  1. Press the power button and turn off the laptop.
  2. Restart the laptop and check the keyboard lights to see if the keyboard is recognized. Press the NUM lock or CAPS lock key to verify this.
  3. If the keyboard is not being recognized, contact the manufacturer to solve the problem or connect another compatible keyboard to the laptop.
  4. Check ‘Event Viewer’ details to see if an error has been logged.
  5. Run the Antivirus Program to detect a virus or Trojan horse in the system.

Laptop Keyboard gets wet:

  1. Shutdown the laptop and remove the battery.
  2. Disassemble the laptop.
  3. Unplug and remove the keyboard.
  4. Let all the liquid drain out of the keyboard.
  5. Clean the keyboard with cotton swabs.
  6. Clean the underside of the keys with a blower. Be careful to hold the can in the proper angle.
  7. Turn the laptop upside down very carefully, without damaging the display. Leave the laptop in this position for at least 48 hours before turning it on.
  8. Plug in the keyboard and check if it is working.
  9. If the keyboard does not work, it will have to be replaced.

CD/DVD problem:

Sometimes you may get an error like ‘drive is not accessible’ or ‘device is not ready’, when you try to access your CD or DVD drives. This may occur even if the ‘Device Manager’ does not show any fault.

  1. Ensure that the connection to the drive is secure and the disk is properly inserted in the drive.
  2. Check the surface of the disk for dirt or abrasions.
  3. Clean the drive with a cleaning disk.
  4. Try playing other disks in the drive. If no disk plays there is a problem with the drive.
  5. Try to access the drive after restarting the laptop.

Power failure:

Power failure occurs when the battery is not properly installed. If the battery is working properly and still there is a problem then there is a main board failure. (Avoid replacing the laptop battery in a hurry). Perform the following steps.

  1. Check the power adapter.
  2. Check whether the LED on the power adapter is ON. The user can check this by unplugging the power adapter and simply plugging in the power outlet.
  3. Ensure that the little LED status lights ON the laptop light up with the power plugged in.
  4. Check the battery. Check the switch.
  5. Check the Motherboard and power supply.

Battery running down very fast:

When the laptop battery is running down very fast, the screen dims, CPU slows down and when the hard drive is not in use it spins down then performs the following steps:

  1. Make sure the aggressive power saving modes in software is enabled. The power saving mode is accessed through control panel or the manufacturer’s icon.
  2. Set the onscreen alarm for estimating the level of remaining battery life.
  3. Change the default settings to a lower level if possible which will give you time to save your work and shutdown before the laptop goes into Hibernation.

 

Simple Maintenance Tips For Your PC

Lily   October 20, 2014   Comments Off on Simple Maintenance Tips For Your PC

Performing Maintenance on the Computer

Maintaining the Hard disk drives:hdd-cleaning

A computer is like any machine that requires regular maintenance. Regular maintenance ensures higher performance of the system.

Scanning your disk:

Scanning your disk enables you to check a particular volume for file system errors. File system errors indicate bad sectors on the volume. In addition, the disk scan process also enables you to recover bad sectors. To scan your disk for bad sectors:

  1. Open ‘My computer’. Select the drive which is to be checked for errors.
  2. Select ‘File’ – ‘Properties’ to open the local disk properties.
  3. Click the ‘Tools’ tab. Click the ‘Check now’ button. The check disk dialog box is displayed.
  4. The options available in the check disk dialog box are:
  5. Automatically fix file system errors: Indicates that the operating system repairs the file-system errors found during disk checking.
  6. Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors: Indicates that the operating system repairs file-system errors found during disk checking, locates bad sectors and recovers readable information.
  7. Select the ‘Automatically fix file system errors’ check box.
  8. Click the ‘Start’ button.

Working with the Chkdsk:

Chkdsk is a command line utility to maintain your hard disk. The Chkdsk command checks the disk for errors based on the file system, displays the status report and attempts to repair errors. The most common errors detected by chkdsk are lost clusters, cross-linked files or allocation errors. It also reports memory usage and availability statistics.

Chkdsk /f – fixes error on specified disk.

Chkdsk /v – displays the name of each file located on the disk.

Chkdsk /r – Locates bad sectors and recover readable information.

Working with disk cleanup utility:

Sometimes the performance of the computer starts slowing down, your files take a longer time to open, save or close. One of the reasons is that, there could be unused files, deleted files or temporary internet files on your hard drive that are no longer required and are occupying space on the hard drive. Using the disk cleanup utility, you can remove the following files safely from the hard drive:

  1. Windows temporary files.
  2. Temporary internet files.
  3. Downloaded program files from the internet.
  4. Files and folders in the recycle bin.
  5. Optional windows components that you are not using.
  6. Installed programs that you no longer use.

Steps to perform Disk cleanup:

  1. Open ‘Computer’ icon on the desktop. Select the required drive on which you want to run the disk cleanup utility. Right click on the drive and click on ‘Disk cleanup’.
  2. The disk cleanup dialog box appears which shows different types of files and their size on the disk.
  3. Select the files which you want to remove and click ‘Ok’.
  4. A message box is displayed prompting you to confirm the deletion of the selected files.
  5. Click ‘Yes’.

Maintaining the storage devices:

Storage devices enable you to store and transfer data between the computer and different storage media such as floppy disks and CD’s. The different devices that you use to store data include Hard disk, tape drives and DVD drives. You must perform regular maintenance of the different storage devices to ensure that they work well. Proper maintenance will ensure trouble-free working for a long time.

Maintaining a DVD drive:

You must clean the DVD writer because a dirt drive can cause read errors while reading a DVD. These read errors should cause problems while installing software or running programs from the DVD. To clean the DVD writer:

  1. Start your computer and pause it on POST. Not that you do not allow it to boot the operating system.
  2. Eject the tray of the DVD drive. Shut down the computer and unplug the main power cords to the system and its peripherals.
  3. If there is front plate on the tray, remove it by pressing two notches on the bottom side and slide it upwards.
  4. Slide the tray back into the drive, but keep it a little open.
  5. Open the system casing. Touch a blank metal part to equalize any static electricity.
  6. While still regularly touching the metal, take off the cables from the faulty DVD/RW.
  7. Unscrew the screws, or unlock the sliders which are holding the drive in the shaft and pull the whole drive out of the system casing.
  8. Unscrew any screw which is holding the drive casing together. Take off the faceplate and take apart the metal lids of the drive casing.
  9. You can dip one end of a cotton bud in a CD lens cleaning liquid and place it on the laser lens that is exposed.
  10. Now turn the cotton tip in any direction as if you are fastening or loosening a screw for a few full turns.
  11. Dry it with a new cotton tip or the other cotton edge in the same way but with no liquid applied. If the lens appears to be dry and shining again, reverse all the steps you have done so far to put the DVD drive back together.
  12. If completely rebuilt and reconnected, leave the system case open and reconnect all the power cords.
  13. Start your computer and boot the OS using a bootable CD to check if the drive will read a DVD.
  14. If it reads than you can fasten all the screws you had previously taken out and close the system.

 

Installing and Configuring a Printer

Lily   October 20, 2014   Comments Off on Installing and Configuring a Printer

Installing a printer:printer

A printer is a peripheral output device. It prints data that is processed by the computer. Printers are classified as impact and non-impact printers. The Dot matrix printers are impact printers & Laser printers are non impact printer. Follow the below steps to set up your printer.

  1. Find an appropriate, flat place to keep the printer.
  2. Check the USB printer cable and study both the ends. One of the ends is called A end & B end.
  3. Connect the A end to the computer and B end to the printer. Check one end of the printer power cable to the wall socket and other end to the printer power cord connector.
  4. Turn the printer ON. Install the cartridge in the printer according to the directions in the printer manual.
  5. Attach the paper input tray to the printer. Close the top cover of the printer and see the Toner cartridge light turns off.
  6. Install the printer drivers from the CD provided with the printer. Print a test page and check the cartridge levels of the printer.
  7. If the test page is successful than you have configured the printer correctly.

Troubleshooting the printer:

You may encounter different problems when working with the printer. You need to troubleshoot these problems in order to make it work properly.

  1. Read the printer manually. Study the safety instructions in the manual.
  2. Try printing after connecting the printer to another computer.
  3. Try printing a document after replacing the cartridge. If the printing is faulty even after replacing the cartridge, it is almost certain that there is a fault in the printer.
  4. Wear an antistatic wristband. Disconnect the printer from the power supply.

General troubleshooting

There are number of reasons why a printer can stop functioning. The computer may not recognize the printer or the printer settings may be incorrect.

  1. If the printer is displaying flashing lights, refer to the printer manual. The problem that is causing the flashing lights will be explained in the manual.
  2. Check if the printer is getting power supply by checking the power LED on the Control Panel.
  3. Check the paper that is loaded in the printer is properly placed and is not jammed. If necessary, adjust the edge guides of the printer.
  4. Find out if the cartridge in the printer is new or used. If the cartridge is new, ensure that the protective plastic layer on the cartridge has been removed.
  5. Check the cable connections of the printer. Run the printer self test. The printer self-test varies from model to model. Refer the instructional manual of the printer to run the self-test. If the printer fails the self-test, the printer has a problem.
  6. Check if the print head is moving. A stationary print head could be the result of a failed transport motor. If the printer passes the self test, print a test page from the computer. IF the test page does not print properly, the problem is due to an improper connection between the computer and printer.
  7. If there is no problem with the connectivity and window test page is not coming, then the problem may be caused due to improper configuration.
  8. Reinstall the printer driver and check for the windows test page again.
  9. Check the computer port, the output may be directed to a wrong port.
  10. Connect the printer to another computer to see if it works.
  11. If there any other parallel devices connected to the computer, turn off those devices, to find out if they are causing the problem.
  12. Restart the printer and try to operate it. This step can help repair the mistakes in internal settings of the printer.
  13. Go to BIOS settings and check the USB connection settings. Change the settings if necessary. Save the settings and reboot the computer and check.

Printer driver does not function properly:

The printer driver can cause many printing problems. These problems are very difficult to detect and trace. This is because the printer driver is very complex software. A problematic printer driver can cause some fonts or formats to cause errors while printing, while others work fine. Some of the problem with the printer driver is:

  1. Appearance of black boxes all over the printout.
  2. Formation of nonsensical characters in the print out.
  3. The application crashes as the printing progresses.
  4. Missing characters or lines in a printout.
  5. Junk or unknown characters printout.

To resolve the problem:

  1. Update the printer driver. For this, contact the printer manufacturer or download the driver from their site.
  2. If an updated driver is not available, try to find a printer driver that is compatible with the printer.
  3. Install the new printer driver.